An ion thruster is a type of electrical propulsion system used for spacecraft propulsion capable of creating thrust by accelerating ions.  Back in June 2015, I remember seeing this demonstration for the first time on Makezine, by . I thought it was amazing for its scientific value and at the same time quite easy to build, so me and Hugo thought we could make our own version of it, using 3D printed parts.


The project isn’t exactly an efficient engine, but more of a scientific demonstration of the ion thruster working principle. That said, it won’t launch of the table but it will create a steady flow of air without using any moving parts, which is interesting.

In terms of materials the project is quite straightforward, all you need are some nails, copper tubing or couplings, an high voltage power supply, wires and something to build the structure.

Alexander suggests the use of copper plated nails, which I presume is to increase electrical conductivity. There are many ways to do that, personally I used a very simple method I found on instructables, which only uses some old oxidised copper coins, salt and lemon juice or vinegar. So, I grabbed some iron nails and cleaned them up with a wire wool to remove any oxidation.


And then put them into the solution, one at a time:


Soon enough I had a copper plated nail:


During the process you might need to replace the coins, because this works best with oxidised coins. During the process they will loose that layer of oxidation and the process stops working. It’s also a good idea to add more lemon juice or vinegar and salt every once in a while.

After a while I got all the copper plated nails I needed:


Keep in mind that this method only adds a very thin layer of copper to the nails, so any scratch will easily remove it.

For the tubes, I used an old copper pipe with a 2cm diameter and cut it into 5cm pieces.

Then I started designing the structure. Since we have a Lulzbot TAZ 4 3D printer in eLab Hackerspace, I thought I could use 3D printing to make it more appealing:

So I used Tinkercad to design the entire structure.


If you want to build your own, I made all parts available on Thingiverse. Even though I used a large 3D printer like the TAZ4, I’ve made sure all parts are small enough to fit most printers.

Then I started printing the parts and testing everything in place:


For the high voltage supply, I had an extra NST (Neon Sign Transformer) from my Tesla Coil, so I used that. It has a 9kV, 50mA output. Be very careful working with high voltage, you must know what you’re doing, because it can kill you!

It’s possible to use other HV supplies, like a flyback transformer from a CRT or something like that.

As soon as I had enough parts, I tested the project:


And it was working great!

Eventually I had all the parts printed and it was finished. I even added an emergency button to fire up the transformer, which always makes everything more exciting!


Now for the explanation, the copper plated nails and the copper tubes serve as electrodes:


The nails must be positioned exactly on the geometric center of the copper tubes. This way, ideally, the distance between the tip of the nail and the surface of the tube is always the same:


The high electric field around the nails will ionize the surrounding air, which means it will become electrically charged and will be attracted by the opposite electrode, the tubes:


This will create almost invisible tiny beams of plasma. As the ions reach the tubes, the charges will be attracted to them but the neutral particles already gained momentum, creating a steady flow of air.

As you can see, the nails are placed on the center of each tube:


There are several things that have influence on the efficiency of the system, for example, the voltage applied to the electrodes, the precision of the placement of the nails on the center of the tubes, making sure all distances between them are the same, perfect cut tubes, having the surface perpendicular to the nails, and of course the distance between the electrodes, which must be put right before it starts creating an electric arc.

By the way, even though I designed the structure with a slider to adjust the distance between the electrodes, don’t ever to it with the power supply on, it’s way too close to the electrodes and it can be very dangerous. So be sure to turn everything off before adjusting the distance through the slider!

If an electric arc is created, the circuit will be closed through that arc, therefore there won’t be any other beams of plasma, and there won’t be a flow of air. Electricity always follows the path of least resistance:


However it does allow for some amazing photos:

DSC_0750.JPG DSC_0751.JPG

I had the opportunity to take this project to Lisbon Maker Faire 2015, for which it was awarded the prize “Best in Class” of science!


Now just a small note, in space there is no air to ionize, which means this project, as it is, wouldn’t work, so how do they do it in space probes? Well in space it’s injected a noble gas like xenon, keeping the spacecrafts from using solid fuel, making this method more efficient and more appropriate for longer travels. But still, the working principle is still the same!

Here is another video of the complete demonstration, even with some arcs at the end:

High Voltage transformers are very dangerous! Don’t try this yourself if you don’t know how to work with high voltage safely!

João Duarte

One of the founders of eLab Hackerspace! Post-Graduate with a Specialization in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Some of his interests include digital fabrication, home automation, robotics, high voltage and chemistry.


Tim · 02/12/2015 at 19:47

What power supply are you using? My NST has open circuit shut off immediately and will not run the ion thruster I built.

    João Duarte · 02/12/2015 at 19:53

    Hey Tim, we’re using an old NST without open circuit protection. The newer models will shut off with this project configuration. You’ll need to find an older NST or any other HV power source without that protection mechanism.

      Dan Bonilla · 04/10/2016 at 03:19

      Do you think it would be possible to modify a newer NST to disable the GFI protection? I already bought one that came WITH the protection long before I had any idea that it would be a problem.

        João Duarte · 06/10/2016 at 17:26

        Hey Daniel, a few things I need to say. First, when working with high voltage, you should always be very careful, and control things at a safe distance and the proper safety equipment. Regarding the GFI protection, I don’t think we mention that in the article. I don’t see a problem using a NST with GFI protection, besides, the one we have, actually does have ground wiring. We even use it connected to a safe ground rod, to safely discharge the electrodes after we turned it off. You can even notice the ground wire in some of our pictures. So yeah, ground protection should and must be there for your safety. I think you might be talking about something else though, which is the open circuit protection. That is indeed a problem, since the project works on an open circuit configuration. Older ferromagnetic NSTs are tough and durable, so they can take it. Electronic NSTs will most likely die if they are forced to work in an open circuit, so they have a protection for that. Regarding modifying the transformer, I honestly don’t know, because I haven’t done it. Older NSTs are basically heavy transformers enclosed in resin or some other insulator, so opening them will probably destroy them. The newer ones, I have no idea. If they are electronic, there is probably a way to disable it. But I’m just guessing.

          Daniel Bonilla · 06/10/2016 at 19:38

          Thank you so much for your information. It was actually my understanding that ground fault protection is a form of open circuit protection. I’m not positive on that though. At any rate, I’ve decided just to buy an older model of NST, just to save myself the trouble. Thanks all the same!

          João Duarte · 06/10/2016 at 20:05

          No problem! Ok great! Yeah that is probably the easiest solution.

feng · 06/12/2016 at 09:47

hi i am a Chinese child ,i want to make this things like that think you for your invention

    João Duarte · 06/12/2016 at 10:11

    Hey! Thank you. But be careful with it, high voltage is lethal, you should probably ask for someone’s help dealing with it.

Mitesh panchal · 20/03/2018 at 11:07

Is 230V enough for this experiment…?

Jeremy Lindh · 02/06/2018 at 17:32

Is it possible to decrease the size of each electrode configuration and multiplex them for higher thrust output?

    João Duarte · 02/06/2018 at 21:40

    I have no idea. You could try using multiple different configurations to test if it improves efficiency.

Mt · 30/10/2018 at 19:36

Would it be advised to put hand behind paper to feel the air movment?


    João Duarte · 10/04/2019 at 13:57

    No! You should never approach the Ion Thruster while it’s operating, it’s high voltage, so it can be very dangerous. Remember that depending on the voltage, an arc can be created from different distances.

Tony Stark · 02/12/2018 at 10:36

Amazing work buddy!!!
.Do you think a 3.7V-6V to 400kV Dc step up power module would do? NSTs cost a bomb here in India.

    João Duarte · 10/04/2019 at 14:01

    Thanks! Well I’m not sure at all, you definitely need high voltage in a wide acceptable range, but the current might influence the operation as well. As long as it would have similar current capabilities, i guess it should work. Anyway, I would at least, give that a run test to see what happens.

Sumit v g · 15/01/2019 at 22:40

How much it will cost to make it at home

    João Duarte · 10/04/2019 at 18:15

    The most expensive part is the NST transformer, but if you can salvage that from an old neon sign for example, the project becomes super cheap, just a piece of copper tube, some nails and 3d printed parts (which can be made from wood).

kliye · 22/08/2019 at 12:25

Can I use other metal than copper? For example, aluminum or zinc.

    João Duarte · 17/09/2019 at 12:14

    Hum not sure, but probably. Although copper likely can achieve better results because of its conductivity.

Dylan Fiore · 19/02/2021 at 15:34

What if I put in the middle of the length, a set of even thinner copper pipes and maybe even a spiral of copper wire

Fabio · 12/05/2021 at 14:24

Ciao , is an electrical diagram of the engine available?

GM · 11/08/2021 at 20:28

Would creating an arc be a bad thing? I don’t know a lot about this, but i’m working on a project, and i thing this will be the perfect thing.

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